The history of Poland is starting along with rule of historical master lives and being first master country from the dynasty Piast which united tribes western Slavs and which in 966 accepted the year Christianity in the Latin tire. This act is an most important and most decisive political-cultural move to this day in the entire history Poland. If Poland adopted the Christianity from the Byzantium, in rite for members of Orthodox church, way made it a dozen or years later Rus (in year 988) in history an Ukrainian and Belarussian nation wouldn’t exist and probably and Polish, only a huge Russian nation would exist, because the separatness of nations Belorussian and Ukrainian is coming brought down to their land influences of the west and connections with west through Latin Poland.
His son enlarged territorial reach of couples, Bolesław Bold – first king of Poland, for rules which Polish state controlled territory very much moved close to in our times filled. For his rules in year 1000 an archdiocese with registered office in Gniezno came into existence what key importance had for surviving early medieval monarchy Piast, as well as for uniting kingdom after period of breaking community beat officer. To 1138 of year Poland was governed by masters from dynasty Piast, which periods not counting allotted to juniors of districts and transitional division, kept control above entire her territory.
Dynasty Piast died, when after death of king of Kazimierz Wielki in 1370 which didn’t leave descendants. In Poland they took over governments Andegawener (Ludwik Węgierski and Jadwiga) and then kings from Jagiellonian dynasty.
It is for rules first for master from this dynasty – of grand duke Lithuanian Jagiello, which in 1388 of year he was peeled by Polish gentry to king of Poland, greatest battle of medieval Europe, during which several dozen thousand men-at-arms clashed was held. The battle was held in 15 July 1410 near town Grünwald and closed with gigantic victory of Polish armies from Lithuanian-Russki above forces Order Teutonic Knights represented above all by German knighthood. The crushed teutonic army lost all flags in the number of 52 and abounding camp and never already recovered former magnificence, stopping threatening existence of Poland and Lithuania.
In 1569 Crown of Congress Kingdom Poland established in 1815 at the Congress Vienna fit into into constant relationship with Grand Duchy of Lithuania. By virtue the formed union in Lublin a Republic came into existence both of Nations, which from 1573 appointed masters ruled road a free election with.
An incorporation state of Lithuanian was a purpose Polish side, while Grand Duchy Lithuania tried to prevent it, aspiring to formation confederation. As a result the Crown Congress Kingdom of Poland established in 1815 at the Congress Vienna and Grand Duchy of Lithuania were converted into connection two states which person chosen together king, Seym, foreign policy joined and system coinage, whereas treasure army, office and ministerial offices were independent.
In this period in the Republic he developed exceptional in world political system, based on dominance very populous gentry and tsystem parliamentary government. The golden age state fell for a period last governments Jagiellonians. After all he ended along with wars half 17th century.
You it was one from biggest territorially of political organisms Europe. After peace agreement with Russia included in Polanie in 1634 a 990 thousand kilometres reached the area.
Republic through hundreds years of existing the most stable border had from the side Germany and Czech Republic not fighting wars with these states for surviving you. However stretching border from the Baltic Sea up to seashores Black and hundreds kilometres to the east Kiev, caused ceaseless fought wars with Russia, Turkey, Swedes, Tartars and Cossacks.
For 300 years magnificence of the Republic for her military forces in all campaigns carried on have always been far less numerous from armies her opponents. Successes Polish weapon at that time are connected with developing heavy-armed called body – with Polish winged Hussars. This body few but very well trained and equipped didn’t have for itself equal on area entire Europe, providing innumerable victories at that time for the Polish state.
Polish winged Hussars – the Polish heavy-armed ride counted among the most effective groups of servicemen in history world was appointed to service by decision parliament in 1503. For 125 years she lost no battle what is regarded as most dangerous and most effective group horse riding in history by world military science.
On account accepted system state – democracy nobility, royal treasure all the time he was practically deserted, since gentry wasn’t willing to overload itself with taxes which king without her agreement could not appoint. Polish masters tried to settle every war in like fastest date, as long as will suffice them of financial resources for her carrying on. Therefore dispatched troops for attempt even against repeatedly trusting more numerous opponents, that Polish winged Hussars “will knock out” opponent in the first clash – on second could already money to be missing.
- For over 125 years Polish winged Hussars didn’t take back defeats.
- • Polish winged Hussars took back victories even over ten times more numerous opponent.
- Pod Curtea de Argesz ( 1600 ) 5-krotnie liczniejsza armia wołosko-mołdawska pierzcha z pola bitwy.
- Under Curtea de Argesz (1600) five times more numerous Vlach-Moldavian army is fleeing from battlefield. Kircholm (1605) numerous mercenaries enlisted in the Swedish army with reservation that they will not have to fight with Polish ride already then very much known. The Swedish command had to for them much raise pay, when it turned out that however they would happen to fight with the Polish ride. As a result battle majority from them suffered death – loss Swedish they took 7000 soldiers out, when after the Polish side only 100 Polish winged Hussars died.
- Kłuszyn (1610) on account of huge numerical superiority of Russians, some flags Polish winged Hussars had to even ten times charge at the opponent. On battlefield, on which on both sides over 40000 persons fought after Polish side it fell 220 over 5000 killeds fighting, including 100 Polish winged Hussars, on side of enemy.
- Chocim (1621) 8000 Polish winged Hussars – substantial amount of Polish winged Hussars on battlefield. The rank of Polish winged Hussars spent more numerous Turkish armies from ten fold field, at sight, what young sultan II Osman burst out crying from sorrow and helplessness
- Vienna (1683) allied Austrian and German armies slowed attack down in order can admire charge of Polish winged Hussars at Turkish army.
System of Republic both Nations are determined as monarchy mixt up. A monarch, an aristocratic element represented by Senate and a democratic element represented by Parliamentary Chamber were authorities.
A democracy nobility was political system Republic. According to her assumptions authority belonged to whole gentry which could influence politics of country through participation in province assemblies and Seyms. In fact a little per cent gentry dealt with the policy, above all her richer part.
The Polish king was a steward offices, had nominations at his disposal to 25 thousand positions, including a few hundred senatorial offices, among them to 16 ministerial positions and 17 ecclesiastical offices.
The society of the Republic consisted above all of Poles, Lithuanians and Ruses. It was into 1618 representatives of these nationalities approximately one by one 4.5 m, 0.75 m and 5 m to total number 11 m inhabitants of state. Among others Latvians, Germany and Jews were essential minorities. Poles, on account of incorporating significant Rusi areas didn’t comprise majority in the Crown or in Lithuania.
However real ethnic membership had secondary meaning. Amongst uppermost layers society of Lithuania and Rusi a fast process Polonization, manifesting itself above all in spreading tongue and Polish culture, as well as the Catholic religion took place. The Polonization resulted from higher cultural, economic and administrative development Crowns. Main state institutions were in it is (capital offices, tribunals, royal manor house), major cities, as well as other oldest university in Centre Europe. This process, as well as Rusi colonization with Polish settlers led to clashes against ethnic background. A practised religion was factor valid them. Majority representatives gentry Polish and polonized Lithuanian gentry rusinska and it was Catholics or Protestants, however peasant population on eastern land revealed Orthodox faith to the Republic.
The diversity of practised religions, as well as tolerant treatment one from biggest in Europe of Jewish minorities caused that Republic had gained nickname you without stacks”.
In Republic gentry was the most privileged social group. In contrast with other countries of Europe gentry was very populous – belonged to him from 8 to 10% of inhabitants state. Also an untypical basis of equality favoured him internal, which in XVI and played 17th century substantial role in integration of the Crown with Lithuania, Ducal Prussia or Inflantia. The gentry already for close 15th century had privileges providing the political dominance for her. The higher clergy was also taken control through high-born – of representatives of large aristocratic families. Admittedly formally every nobleman had same rights but in fact by gentry average came into existence poor, close for peasantry homestead gentry and rich aristocracy, for which leading representatives frequently were being named “królewięta”.
With height of position gentry a fall in meaning bourgeoisie interfaced. Crisis of cities in 17th century and development highly for reducing role burgesseses led the self-sufficient farm economy – both political and economic. Only a few principal cities with Gdańsk at head kept their position.
A peasantry had lowest position. Attachment to the earth and total compliance with gentry made situation of peasants resemble slavery. In 1791 in Republic to counting 6 360 000 condition of peasants – 3 500 000 was subjects inherited goods gentry, exempted from care laws and power of national government, encumbered with taxes and a serfdom beyond their powers.
Since gigantic aristocratic latifundiums stretched above all on Ukrainian land, supplied it to situation, that magnates nationalities ruled this area above all Polish and confessing the Catholic faith, in inhuman give way pinching peasants doing corvée for them deprived of all laws, being mainly to the Ukrainian nationality and Orthodox faith.
This situation led in next centuries to gigantic tensions and conflicts among the Polish nation and the Ukrainian, which ethnic cleansings were climax in period World War II, which with victim several dozen thousand murdered residents this land of Polish nationality and a dozen or thousand Ukrainians deprived of living in retaliatory actions fell down.
The fall Republic took place at the end of 17th century, since after 50 years fighting ceaseless wars, the Republic was completely depleted and not gifted for reconstruction, military and political economic potential. As a result of wars, hunger and epidemic state lost 1 / 3 populations. The national income also in 1648-1696 years reduced about almost a 30% meanwhile states neighbouring the Republic – Prussia, Austria and Russia increased their economic potential at that time by 50%.
What took place in 1772-1795 years turned out to be event without precedent not only in history of Europe but also world, since within 23 years, large (territorially second all over Russia) the European country for a period of 123 years was wiped out by his neighbours map of history. Disassemblies of Poland made by Russia, Prussia and Austria were coordinated action, against which Poland could not defend itself.
Loss of independence at beginning reform country (a year before a modern constitution was adopted – first in Europe and second in the world, after the American constitution) was a disaster for Polish society. Crucial in development of European countries XIX age, when they built their economic advantage over rest world, became a wasted century for Poles. Poles were deprived by period 123 years development potentialities own enterprises and banks.
The fall of Poles and Lithuanians had a lot of causes, but main there was a system state not letting for creating strong and centralized royalty from them, financial and political marginalisation burgesseses and almost slavish treating peasantry.
Republic both nations – Poles and Lithuanians, was a state of the Polish and polonized Lithuanian and Ukrainian gentry above all. For her future depended from granting equal rights Ukrainians and from transforming Ukraine in analogous to Poland and of Lithuania third independent national building block of the Republic what was never made.
The Polish people deprived their national identity by three invaders for period 5 generations, survived thanks to tradition cultivated largely by Roman Catholic Church and numerous comings into existence however which on account of joint fighting by everyone invaders didn’t have a chance success. Polish schools closed down and universities stayed, using Polish was forbidden and severely punished. Polish children could get only an elementary education. Nation deprived of elites on purpose was encouraged to drink so that more easily it was possible to subordinate him.They forbided publication of Polish books and staging stage plays Polish authors. Invaders commenced slandering Polish people in Europe and America to mass scale, wanting to justify destroying Polish state and to justify blotting his culture out.
After uprisings 50 thousand his participants chose emigration. Invader effectively eliminated rest old elites confiscating their wealths and exiling Siberia deep into. In Russian annexed territory to occupy towns left by Poles families started orthodox Jews resettled to Polish areas by tsarist civil service. They weren’t good at Polish and were going to learn it, not feeling to any connections with culture and history Poland, living by Poles completely isolated in one’s communities.
At the end 19th century Jews flowing in from Russian land straight out took over into having a city and a small town of eastern Poland, constituting from 50% up to 80% their residents. Poles for over 100 years deprived of development potentialities own entrepreneurship didn’t keep economic rivalry waiting with new strangers which seized majority economy for these areas. Poles arriving such a gigantic amount orthodox Jews, fundamentally differing from assimilated Jewish community living on areas of Republic from hundreds of years, regarded as consecutive element the Russian colonization and homelands. It engendered wave dislike towards Jewish community which in 40 years, in period of the World War II, standing up in face extermination given by Germans, could not count on greater empathy and help on part of Poles.
Poland gentry and aristocracy of repressions as a result fall Republic but next applied by invaders for triggering and supporting rise national independence, deprived of wealths and subjected to different repressions. This social class after all disappeared from history of Polish history during period World War II, equally mercilessly destroyed by Germans and Russians.
Only finishing the World War I enabled the Polish nation to make a mark to independence what took place in November 1918. After regaining independence in 1919-1921 years Poland fought unusually bloody war with Soviet Russia. As a result this conflict a determined eastern boundary country stayed.
Uniting land being included for 123 years in other states, differing into one state organism was an economic level, a legal culture and a system coinage with unusually difficult task, all the more so because this land was devastated by warfare. The country’s population consisted of 27.2 m people, from this as many as 10 m constituted national minorities (14% – Ukrainians, 8% – Jews, 4% – Byelorussians, 4% – Germany, 1% – Lithuanians, Czechs, Russians).
7 m Poles lived outside country, including 2 m on ternie of Soviet Russia, where were subjected to cruel repressions, similarly to many other nations inhabiting countries being included in an Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
Considering civilization backwardnesses, unusual a caused development country was straight out achieving in different fields in interwar period.
In spite this development Poland was a country about degree low and very much diversified capitalist development. The national income each shaped resident oneself on level 5.5 – krotnie lower than in England, free fold lower than in Germany and Denmark, 2.5 fold lower than in France and Sweden. Poland was one poorest countries of Europe. In spite putting between two totalitarianisms – with Nazi Germany and Soviet Russia, authorities state tried to pursue independent policy.
Poland didn’t yield to the pressure exerted by Germany and 1 September 1939 was forced to resist the aggression invader, which after the job Czechoslowacja could attack Poland from three directions.
To pressures of Germany aspiring for subduing their neighbour – Minister Foreign Affairs only had Poland one reply which proceeded to history diplomacy – ” Room is a precious and desired thing. Our generation, bloody in wars, certainly is deserving room. But room how, almost has all matters this world one’s high price but measurable. We in Poland don’t know comprehending room at all costs. There is only one thing in life of people, nations and states which is priceless. An honour is this thing”.
General Headquarters Polish in spite disproportion powers decided to accept general battle in border strip in length border about the km 1700 long. Concentrating majority of powers on line Vistula would be more justified but giving the half back without fight to territory country would mean, with an principal industrial centres.
Polish authorities counted on ensuing from their allied obligations simultaneously being afraid of France and England, that Hitler after taking the half without fight would finish war with territory country, dismissing allies from being help. Nobody after all then supposed war with Poland would be an admission to world conflict.
To war Poland took out 687 thousand soldiers and officers, in view 1.5 m German, at five-times majority of Germans in aviation and 15 fold in armour. The border battle lasted 3 days and closed with defeat of Polish army which on account of stretching defensive lines, in every place attack German armies was too weak for appearance of the long-term resistance.
A battle done on 7-10 days proceeded to history of defensive war of September near Wizna town, where based on a few heavy combat bunkers attack of 42 thousand stopped 720 soldiers and Polish officers Germans under command Gen Heinz of Guderian which commanded an armoured division and two mechanized divisions. Captain Wladyslaw Raginis commanded Polish defence, which according to taken oath, not being able to not longer keep defended length, took his own life. Germans issued an ultimatum to Polish commander, that if doesn’t subject defended position, will butcher captured wounded Polish soldiers. The done battle was named “Polish Termopile”, since only 80 defenders survived.
The fact that German motorized units didn’t move in September 1939 as so quickly as in 1940 in France and in 1941 in the Soviet Union, best is attesting to doggedness of the Polish resistance. Beating one Polish division cost Germans more victims and ammunition three times, than destroying one allied division on western front in 1940. Germans during the campaign in Poland lost the about 18 thousand killed with i30 thousand seriously injured soldiers. But material losses which took 217 destroyed tanks out to total amount were most essential c 2800 used during invasion 300 next heavily damaged tanks are going as far as it. Moreover Wermacht lost 319 armoured cars and over 6 thousand cars and 5.5 thousand of motorbikes in Poland, as well as 370 department and mortars.
On 17 September German armies occupied territory of Poland underwent half. Since in spite of carrying gigantic casualties and equipment, Poland army all the time drew supplements from distant base, still served at front ok for 500 thousand Polish soldiers, in addition the front was torn and large groups armies did battle in the seclusion (among others in beleaguered Warsaw which gave up on only 28 September, losing while besieging 50 of residents killed with the thousand and wounded and the 25% destroyed municipal infrastructure). On that day border with Poland crossed units Soviet army making the next disassembly of Poland along with Nazi Germany. Soviet aggression sealed defeat Polish army. A classified protocol entered into on day 23 provided for influx of Soviet armies of August of 1939 yr between Nazi Germany and Stalinist Russia. The authorities state with many army units were evacuated to territory Romania and Hungarian, where were detained. Poland didn’t sign act capitulation and for entire period occupation a formed collaboration government didn’t stay, in contrast with almost all countries conquered by Hitler.
Altogether 123 thousand soldiers died in battle with German and Soviet armies and took back officers but almost 134 thousand wounds. The serviceman gave every third Poland back life or health in defence homeland.
Total defeat roused unknown in Poles in their history straining feeling solidarity society as a whole, in the process in autumn 1939 made year oneself last stage on road national consolidation which started after disassemblies itself from the end of 18th century. In country he came into existence strongest and most numerous in states conquered by Germans resistance movement against invader to which 300 thousand citizens belonged of different social layers. After the fall homeland, 400 thousand of Poles fought with Germany in bodies of servicemen created on foreign country, at first in France but next in England, as well as in Soviet Russia. She was it 4 numerically army fighting with Germany on side allies (smaller only from Russian, American and British army).
Population dwelling occupied areas in through sowietów became an object of mass deportations to the East, above all in first half of 1940 and in half 1941. Repressions concerned servicemen and police officers, educated persons, clerks administration, landowners, clergymen and like c 1.5 m persons, from which majority died emaciation and hunger was being deported. A fate mass murders for c 15 thousand Polish officers murdered in Katyn and other places made by Russians became a symbol of Stalinist terror.
Occupied areas embraced by Germans were a martial law and excluded from law. The population from General created Governorship from conquered Polish land on a large scale was being sent to Germany as a slave workforce, whereas from areas included in Crowd a 750 thousand people was being displaced taking entire wealth away from them and leaving the livelihood without none. Germans aspired disposable Polish intelligentsia what began right after completing warfare. The Jewish population was almost immediately symbolically separated, but from 1940 settled in ghettos. The process of mass murders began Jews in 1942, and were biggest extermination camps KL Auschwitz and KL Treblinka. In 1943 liquidations ghettos were commenced, on 18 January in the Warsaw ghetto exploded, coming into existence bloodily put down, reckless. A scope terror German grew – round-ups executing by firing squad were held in cities and villages were pacified (over 800 Polish villages stayed offsides and all residents were butchered).
On account substantial amount population of nationalities of Jewish Poland dwelling areas in and central location country, to Polish land Jews were exiled from entire Europe in order to butcher in an extermination camps. Poland the earth for Jewish nation after hundreds years of age and the development on this area became a cursed land. 26% of honorees with title “just amongst nations of world” these are Polish nationals, which from exposing own life and living one’s closest, saved citizens of the Jewish nation during German occupation (for hiding Jews entire families were killed outright). However it isn’t also changing fact that she was it is a group small, bringing help in vast expanse misfortune and big section of society was turned towards Jews with hostility or the best case referring with undisguised dislike or indifference to their fate.
Altogether c 6 m Polish citizens died during Second World War, what Polish nationals Jewish nationality constituted 2.9 m from. With 6 m victims – almost were 5.5 m these are victims genocide.
One from the most tragic events during German occupation complete damage and levelling capital city Poland were – Warsaw, as a result pacification coming into existence which burst in August 1944 and was muffled after 63 days fierce fights, which Germans compared dogged determination for capturing Stalingrad and which in bestial way butchered 180 thousand city dwellers during. The coming into existence was put down at approval and inactivity of Russian armies being stationed already near Warsaw (Stalin at first forbided even a landing of allied planes on areas get by Russians which after making airdrops of supplying for insurgents, in front of the return road to England or Italy, had to land and fill fuel up).
Poland during the World War II carried financial and biological heavy losses (to every thousand of residents 220 persons died). 2/5 cultural achievements of Poland stayed entirely destroyed.
After Second World War Poland encountered 44 years up to influences of Soviet Russia, not being able to not conduct the independent foreign policy neither economic. In country permanently Russian armies were installed. Leading communist governments 100 thousand Polish patriots were murdered – soldiers returning from west after disbanding their individuals and fighters resistance movement.
Stalin as chief winner World War II which gained control above entire centre and eastern Europe, anew moulded border won with country biggest changes concerned Poland from which all eastern provinces were taken away and they moved country’s borders west for a few hundred km with cost of areas belonging to Germany.
Poland for centuries being a multinational state, permanent oneself with country in principle one-etnic. Germans were displaced, Ukrainians and Byelorussians stayed outside new state borders and Jewish nationality in course war was butchered by Germans.
In this way history of Poland for 1000 years made circles and the Polski entered into possession of areas which first crowned Polish king managed – Boleslaw Bold.
Permanent weakening Poland was a purpose of Stalin on account of long-lasting bringing into conflict her with Germans. Against one’s intentions, moving territory of Poland to the central part of Europe contributed to the success of Poland in the 21st century.
After completion wars repeatedly broke out public protests, in which citizens demanded restoring autonomy country. On their foundation an organization originated “Solidarity” which demanded political reforms and outstanding activists economic, under chairmanship of Lech Walesa with which the entire group cooperated – intellectuals and workers. To “Solidarities” almost 10 m citizens set. Communist authority under leadership of general Wojciech Jaruzelski, being afraid a public roll, intervention of Russian armies and civil war, implemented state emergency in December 1981, pacifying operations organizations independent government for a few years. However social and economic situation was so disastrous, that Wojciech Jaruzelski, in agreement with opposition, in 1989 led to gradual disassembly Communist system in the country.
Poland recovered political and economic sovereignty, carrying with success extremely difficult and painful for society economic reforms what enabled her to set about in 1999 to NATO and in 2004 to European Union.
Entering in the 21st century as quickly reforming you, centuries backwardnesses making up, Poland ended period of one’s tragic history which mainly resulted from geopolitical situation, rather than mistakes one sort or another in Polish politics.
The democracy nobility could not create an equally strong state organism, how absolute monarchies made it and in the 20th century democratic Poland had to surrender before totalitarianism of Germany and Russia.
Poland in its history was destroyed by coordinated action of her neighbours. For invader (Russia, Germany and Austria) they butchered, exiled to Siberia or forced to the emigration robbing wealth, Polish industrial and intellectual elites. The nation Poland in 19th century was deprived of development potentialities and in the 20th century was ruined through and World War II, which greatest havocs caused on areas inhabited by Poles. Next 44 years of governments communist dictatorship gave chance creation modern state to none.
Through their tragic history Poles today must with travails chase the world lead, but scarcely within a few years recovering sovereignty created modern economy which became a foundation fast modernization country.